Male Pelvic Floor: Advanced Massage and Bodywork for Tension, Dysfunction, and Pain


"I love your reference lists! Thank you for the work you've done and continue to do on your sites. A valuable resource for men!" - M. B.

Below is an extensive list of resources for both consumers and professionals. These books, journal articles, and research papers have added immensely to my own education and understanding of the male pelvic floor. Though I have grouped books into consumer and professional categories, consumers who have a strong interest or have a health sciences background may wish to consider the titles in the professional category as well. For those who want to keep costs to a minimum, your local library can be a goldmine. Most participate in an interlibrary loan program through which you can borrow titles that are not among your local library's holdings. Here's how it works: your library will do a national search for the nearest participating library that has a copy of the requested title. It then borrows this title and once received, loans it to you. Note that participating libraries include many medical school libraries whose holdings would include most of the books and journals listed below.

Some journal articles and research papers are available to download online. Most often, however, only the abstract (summary) will be free to view. You do have the option of buying the article from the publisher but this can be very expensive. I suggest you try these alternatives first:

Log in to your local library's website using your card number (you can do this from home of course) and search their database for the journal(s) in which the articles you wish to read appear. You may find that your library has electronic access to a number of journals not available to you through an independent search. If you still have no luck accessing a particular item, try using the above-mentioned interlibrary loan service. In this case the lending library will typically photocopy the requested article and send it to your local library to distribute to you. Articles need not be returned and are yours to keep.

Another useful strategy is to do an online search for the author's personal website. Publishing contracts sometimes allow the author to upload the full text of their articles or research papers to their home pages, freely viewable to all.

Books for Consumers

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Ending Male Pelvic Pain: A Man's Manual
Isa Herrera. Duplex Publishing, 2013.
This is an empowering, well-rounded book for men with chronic pelvic pain, sexual dysfunction, and/or urinary/bladder dysfunction. Includes exercises and stretches, self-massage techniques for the pelvic floor muscles, mind-body strategies for managing pain, and much more. There are more self-help tools and techniques in this book than in any other single resource. Highly recommended.

Pelvic Power: Mind / Body Exercises for Strength, Flexibility, Posture, and Balance
Eric Franklin. Princeton Book Company, 2003.
The author describes the muscles, bones, and ligaments that make up the pelvic floor and its surroundings, and offers a variety of exercises to conceptualize, sense, and engage this area.

Heal Pelvic Pain: A Proven Stretching, Strengthening, and Nutrition Program for Relieving Pain, Incontinence, IBS, and Other Symptoms Without Surgery
Amy Stein, M.P.T. McGraw-Hill, 2008.

A Headache in the Pelvis: A New Understanding and Treatment for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes, 6th edition
David Wise, Ph.D. and Rodney Anderson, M.D. National Center for Pelvic Pain Research, 2010.
This mostly male-oriented book explains why standard medical treatments for CP/CPPS are often based on faulty diagnoses and usually do not work. Note that while this book is good for understanding the underlying causes of pelvic pain and dysfunction, it does not offer practical self-help techniques. One author is a urologist and the other a psychologist.

Out in the Open: The Complete Male Pelvis
R. Louis Schultz. North Atlantic Books, 1999, revised 2012.
This overview of the male pelvis is especially useful for those men who haven't really thought about their pelvis before and are just starting the process of understanding it. The author's background is in Rolfing (Structural Integration), a type of bodywork.

Increased Potency Through Specific Fitness Training

Frank Sommer, M.D. Ph.D. Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2002.
This book is a German urologist's exercise protocol for better quality erections, both in terms of strength and endurance. Pelvic floor contractions are incorporated into exercises for the core musculature. Note the translation from the original German is less than ideal, but readable.

Pelvic Yoga: An Integrated Program of Pelvic Floor Exercises to Overcome Incontinence and Support Overall Pelvic Floor Health, Second Edition
Kimberly Bethany Bonura, PhD, RYT. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013.
The author describes four complementary pelvic floor exercises and then integrates them into her beginner, moderate, and advanced yoga protocols.

Moola Bandha: The Master Key Swami Buddhananda. Yoga Publications Trust, 1996.
Moola Bandha is centered in the pelvic floor, and is a yoga approach to awakening and expanding the spiritual energy that resides there. It includes many physical and energetic practices as well as explanations.

Teach Us To Sit Still: A Skeptic's Search for Health and Healing Tim Parks. Rodale, 2011.
The author writes of his years of chronic pelvic pain. Getting no acceptable answers from the medical profession (and facing surgery) he ultimately charts his own course and, to his great surprise, finds relief through progressive relaxation, bodywork, and meditation. Well written, engaging, and at times very funny.

Anal Pleasure and Health, 4th revised edition
Jack Morin, Ph.D. Down There Press, 2010.
Some aspects of this book will not appeal to all readers, but there is much useful information here that is very relevant to the pelvic floor. He discusses the 'taboo' aspect of the anal region, describes pelvic floor muscle exercises, and has many suggestions for exploration. The author was a psychotherapist and teacher.

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Books for Professionals

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The Pelvic Floor
Beate Carriere and Cynthia Markel Feldt. Thieme, 2006.

Chronic Pelvic Pain and Dysfunction: Practical Physical Medicine
Leon Chaitow and Ruth Lovegrove Jones. Churchill Livingstone, 2012.

Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
Daniel Shoskes, ed. Humana Press, 2008.

Pelvic Floor Disorders
Alain Bourcier, Edward McGuire, and Paul Abrams. Saunders, 2004.

Pelvic Dysfunction in Men: Diagnosis and Treatment of Male Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction
Grace Dorey. Wiley & Sons, 2006.

Genitourinary Pain and Inflammation: Diagnosis and Treatment
Jeannette Potts, ed. Humana Press, 2008

Pelvic Floor Exercises for Erectile Dysfunction
Grace Dorey. Whurr, 2004.

Evidence-Based Physical Therapy for the Pelvic Floor
Kari Bo et al., eds. Elsevier, 2007.

Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual. Vol. 2: The Lower Extremities.
Janet Travell and David Simons. Williams & Wilkins, 1992.

Clinical Application of Neuromuscular Techniques, Vol. 2: The Lower Body
Leon Chaitow and Judith Walker DeLany. Churchill Livingstone, 2002.

Anatomy Trains: Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists
Thomas W. Myers. Churchill Livingstone, 2001 (second edition published in 2008).

Fascial Release for Structural Balance
James Earls and Thomas Myers. North Atlantic Books, 2010.

Rehabilitation of the Spine, 2nd ed.
Craig Liebenson. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007.

Men's Health, edition 2
Kirby et al., eds. Taylor & Francis, 1999, 2004.

Healing With the Chakra Energy System: Acupressure, Bodywork, and Reflexology for Total Health
John Cross. North Atlantic Books, 2006.

Manual Therapy for the Prostate
Jean-Pierre Barral. North Atlantic Books, 2006.  J-P Barral is the developer of Visceral Manipulation, which is the emphasis of this book.

Note: There are many good anatomy atlases available. Among my favorites is the recent Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System published by Thieme in 2010.

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Research Papers, Journal Articles, and Commentary

Articles are grouped together by subject. Keep in mind, however, that many of these papers are not limited to the subject under which they are listed and could also be put in other categories. This list includes all papers cited on previous pages plus many additional papers that have contributed to my understanding of the male pelvic floor. All items are listed by title first for reading clarity rather than the traditional author first sequence.

Click any index link below to skip to that section. At the end of each section is a "Back to articles index" link to return here, and a "Back to top" link to return to the main menu at the top of the page.

Pelvic Floor Anatomy and Function
Pelvic Floor Muscle Tenderness, Pain, and Dysfunction
Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
Erectile Dysfunction
Premature Ejaculation / Painful Ejaculation
Genital Pain
Pain Associated with Receptive Sexual Intercourse
Sexual Dysfunction Associated with CP/CPPS
Alternative and Complimentary Therapies
Athletics / Bicycling
Continence / Voiding
Prostatic Massage

Pelvic Floor Anatomy and Function

"Thanks for your time. Your website and articles are great."
- S. R.

Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Anatomy.
Jaap Stoker, MD. Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology 23 (2009): 463-475.

Postural and Respiratory Functions of the Pelvic Floor Muscles.
P.W. Hodges, R. Sapsford, and L.H.M. Pengel. Neurology and Urodynamics 2007; 26: 362-371.

Pelvic Floor: Anatomy and Function.
A. E. Barucha. Neurogastroenterology and Motility 18 (2006): 507-519.

Pelvic Floor Function and Dysfunction.
Fall, Baranowski, Elneil et al. From: Guidelines on Chronic Pelvic Pain. European Association of Urology 2008. Section 6: 67-69. Available at: 2008.pdf

Neuroanatomy of the Male Pelvis in Respect to Radical Prostatectomy Including Three-Dimensional Visualization.
Thilo Schwalenberg, Jochen Neuhaus, Evangelos Liatsikos, Mathias Winkler, Sabine Loffler, and Jens Uwe-Stolzenburg. BJU International 105 (2009): 21-27.

The Pelvic Floor in Health and Disease.
Andrew Shelton, MD, and Mark L. Welton, MD. Western Journal of Medicine 1997 August; 167: 90-98.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Male Pelvic Floor: The Anatomical Configuration and Dynamic Movement in Healthy Men.
Naohito Mikuma, Mitsuharu Tamagawa, Kazuo Morita, and Taiji Tsukamoto. Neurology and Urodynamics 1998; 17: 591-597.

Standardization of Terminology of Pelvic Floor Muscle Function and Dysfunction: Report From the Pelvic Floor Clinical Assessment Group of the International Continence Society.
Bert Messelink et al. Neurology and Urodynamics 2005; 24: 374-380.

Role of the Bulbocavernosus Muscles on the Mechanism of Human Erection.
E. Wespes et al. European Urology 1990; 18: 45-48.

The Male Rectourethralis and Deep Transverse Perineal Muscles and Their Relationship to Adjacent Structures Examined with Successive Slices of Celloidin-Embedded Pelvic Viscera.
Li-Dong Zhai et al. European Urology 2011; 59 (3): e5-e14.

Anatomy and Innervation of the Rhabdosphincter of the Male Urethra.
H. Strasser, et al. Seminars in Urologic Oncology 2000; 18(1): 24-31.

Erection and Ejaculation in Man: Assessment of the Electromyographic Activity of the Bulbocavernosus and Ischiocavernosus Muscles.
T. Gerstenberg, R.J. Levin, and G. Wagner. British Journal of Urology 1990; 65: 395-402.

Squatting vs. sitting during defecation as a way of helping the relaxation of the pelvic floor.
Essay by David Wise, PhD. Undated. from:

Contraction of the Pelvic Floor Muscles During Abdominal Maneuvers.
Ruth R. Sapsford, DipPhty, and Paul W. Hodges, PhD. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001; Vol. 82 (8): 1081-1088.

Physioanatomic Entirety of External Anal Sphincter with Bulbocavernosus Muscle.
A. Shafik. Archives of Andrology 1999; 42:45-54.

Surgical Anatomy of the Perineal Muscles and their Role in Perineal Disorders.
Ahmed Shafik, Ismail Ahmed, Ali A. Shafik, Tarek A. El-Ghamrawy, and Olfat El-Sibai. Anatomical Science International 2005; 80: 167-171.

Spring Balance Evaluation of the Ischiocavernosus Muscle.
Y. Kawanishi et al. International Journal of Impotence Research 2001; 13: 294-297.

The Anal Reflex Elicited by Cough and Sniff: Validation of a Neglected Clinical Sign.
C. L. H. Chan, S. Ponsford, and M. Swash. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2004 Oct; 75 (10): 1449-1451.

The Effect of Anal Sphincter Contraction on the Ischiocavernosus Muscle and Its Suggested Role in the Sexual Act.
Ahmed Shafik, Ismail Shafik, Olfat El-Sibai, and Ali A. Shafik. Journal of Andrology 2006 Jan-Feb; Vol. 27, No. 1: 40-44.

Histologic Study of the Tunica Albuginea of the Penis and Mode of Cavernosus Muscles' Insertion in it.
A. Shafik, A. El-Sharkawy, A. Khamis, S. Zaghloul, and M. Abdel Gawad. Archives of Andrology. 2006 Jan-Feb; 52 (1): 1-8.

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Pelvic Floor Muscle Tenderness, Pain, and Dysfunction

Myofascial Dysfunction Associated with Chronic Pelvic Floor Pain: Management Strategies.
Srinivasan AK, Kaye JD, and Moldwin R. Current Pain and Headache Reports 2007; 11: 359-364.

Restoring Pelvic Floor Function in Men: a Review of RCTs.
Dorey G., MSc, MCSP. British Journal of Nursing 2005 Oct 27-Nov 9; 14 (19): 1014-1018, 1020-1021.

Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Pelvic Floor: A Common Urological Condition.
F. Itza, D. Zarza, L. Serra, F. Gomez-Sancha, J. Salinas, and A. Allona-Almagro. Actas Urologicas Espanolas 2010; 34 (4): 318-326.

Chronic Perineal Pain: Current Pathophysiological Aspects, Diagnostic Approaches and Treatment.
Andromanakos NP, Kouraklis G, and Alkiviadis K. European Jounal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2011 Jan; 23 (1): 2-7.

Urological Myofascial Pain Syndromes.
Ragi Doggweiller-Wiygul, MD. Current Pain and Headache Reports 2004; 8: 445-451.

Tension Myalgia of the Pelvic Floor.
Sinaki M, Merritt JL, and Stillwell GK. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1977 Nov; 52 (11): 717-722.

[Symptomatic Approach to Musculoskeletal Dysfunction and Chronic Pelvic and Perineal Pain].
Labatt JJ, et al. Progres en Urologie 2010 Nov; 20(12): 982-989. This article is in French; an abstract in English is available online.

Understanding Effective Treatments of Myofascial Trigger Points.
David G. Simons M.D. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2002 April; 81-88.

Physical Therapy Management of Pelvi/Perineal and Perianal Pain Syndromes.
S. J. Markwell. World Journal of Urology 2001; 19: 194-199.

Soft Tissue Manipulation and Pelvic Pain.
Leon Chaitow, D.O. Massage Today 2010 Dec.: 12-13.

Pelvic Floor Tension Myalgia (PFTM).
Steve J. Wisniewski, MD and Mark H. Winemiller, MD. Practical Pain Management 2004 Nov-Dec; Vol. 4, Issue 6.

Reproducibility of Digital Testing of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Men.
J.J. Wyndaele, MD, PhD, DS, and B. Van Eetvelde, PT. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1996; Vol. 77: 1179-1181.

Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength Testing.
Helena Frawley, B App Sc (Phty), Postgrad Cert Phty (Pelvic Floor), PhD. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2006; Vol. 52: 307.

Coccygodynia: Cause and Treatment.
George H. Thiele MD, FACS. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 1963; Vol. 6 No. 6: 422-436.

Coccyx Pain Triggered by the Biological Mammalian Response to Tail-Pulled-Between-the-Legs.
David Wise, PhD. essay. Available at:

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Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS)
See also the sexual dysfunction categories below.

Muscle Tenderness in Men With Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: The Chronic Prostatitits Cohort Study.
Daniel A. Shoskes et al. The Journal of Urology 2008 Feb; Vol. 179: 556-560.

Painful Myofascial Trigger Points and Pain Sites in Men With Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Rodney U. Anderson, Timothy Sawyer, David Wise, Angie Morey, and Brian H. Nathanson. The Journal of Urology 2009 Dec; Vol. 182: 2753-2758.

Tenderness as Measured by Pressure Pain Thresholds Extends Beyond the Pelvis in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Men.
Seth N.P. Davis, BA, Caroline A. Maykut, Yitzchak M. Binik, PhD, Rhonda Amsel, MSc, and Serge Carrier, MD. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011; 8: 232-239.

Musculoskeletal Dysfunction in Men with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Type III: A Case Control Study.
Diane C. Hetrick, Marcia A. Ciol, Ivan Rothman, Judith A. Turner, Margaret FRest, and Richard E. Berger. The Journal of Urology 2003 Sept; Vol. 170: 828-831.

Physical Therapist Management of Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Linda S. Van Alstyne, Kendra L. Harrington, and Esther M. Haskvitz. Physical Therapy 2010 Dec; Vol. 90 No. 12: 1795-1806.

Excessive Antibiotic Use in Men with Prostatitis.
Brent C. Taylor PhD, MPH et al. The American Journal of Medicine 2008 May; Vol. 121 No. 5: 445-449.

Pelvic Floor Therapies in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Ragi Doggweiler and Adam F. Stewart. Current Urology Reports 2011 12:304-311.

Category III Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Insights from the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network Studies.
J. Curtis Nickel et al. Current Urology Reports 2008 July; 9(4): 320-327.

Randomized Multicenter Feasibility Trial of Myofascial Physical Therapy for the Treatment of Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes.
Mary P. Fitzgerald et al. The Journal of Urology 2009 Aug; Vol. 182: 570-580.

Finding Help for Pelvic Pain: A Patient's Story.
Harvard Prostate Knowledge 2009. Available from:

Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Pelvic Floor Spasm: Can We Diagnose and Treat?
Karin E. Westesson and Daniel A. Shoskes. Current Urology Reports 2010; 11: 261-264.

Chronic Pelvic Pain: Pelvic Floor Problems, Sacroiliac Dysfunction and the Trigger Point Connection.
Leon Chaitow, ND, DO. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2007; 11: 327-339.

Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy for Patients with Prostatitis.
Jeanette M. Potts, MD and Elizabeth O'Dougherty, PT. Current Urology Reports 2000; 1: 155-158.

The Role of Pelvic Floor Therapies in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes.
Rodney U. Anderson, MD. Current Prostate Reports 2008; 6: 139-144.

Nonpharmacological Approaches for the Treatment of Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes in Men.
Jeanette M. Potts, MD. Current Urology Reports 2009; 10: 289-294.

Pelvic Tenderness is not Limited to the Prostate in Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) Type IIIA and IIIB: Comparison of Men with and without CP/CPPS.
Richard E. Berger, Marcia A. Ciol, Ivan Rothman, and Judith A. Turner. The Journal of Urology 2008; Vol. 179 Issue 2: 556-560.

Minimally Invasive Therapies for Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Salim A. Wehbe, Jennifer Y. Fariello, and Kristene Whitmore. Current Urology Reports 2010; 11: 276-285.

6-Day Intensive Treatment Protocol for Refractory Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Using Myofascial Release and Paradoxical Relaxation Training.
Rodney U. Anderson, David Wise, Timothy Sawyer, Patrician Glowe, and Elaine K. Orenberg. The Journal of Urology 2011 April; Vol. 185: 1294-1299.

New Paradigms in Understanding Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Katy S. Konkle and J. Quentin Clemens. Current Urolgy Reports 2011; 12: 278-283.

Prostatitis, Prostatosis, or Pelvic Floor Tension Myalgia?
Joseph W. Segura, Joachim L. Opitz, and Laurence F. Greene. The Journal of Urology 1979 Aug; Vol. 122: 168-169.

Chronic Prostatitis: A Myofascial Pain Syndrome?
Dirk Henrik Zermann MD, Manabu Ishigooka MD, Ragi Doggweiler MD, and Richard A. Schmidt MD. Infections in Urology 1999; 12 (3): 84-88, 92.

Category III Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Insights from the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network Studies.
J. Curtis Nickel, et al. Current Urology Reports 2008 July; 9(4): 320-327.

Stress is Associated with Subsequent Pain and Disability Among Men with Nonbacterial Prostatitis / Pelvic Pain.
Philip M. Ullrich, Ph.D., Judith A. Turner, Ph.D., Marcia Ciol, Ph.D., and Richard Berger, M.D. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2005; 30 (2): 112-118.

Stress Prostatitis.
Harry C. Miller, M.D. Urology 1988; vol. 32, No. 6: 507-510.

Stress and Prostatitis.
Harvard Prostate Knowledge 2010/2011 available at:

The Effect of Biofeedback Physical Therapy in Men with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Type III.
Erik B. Cornel, Ernst P. van Haarst, Ria W.M. Browning-Groote Schaarsberg, and Jenet Geels. European Urology 2005; 47: 607-611.

Biofeedback, Pelvic Floor Re-Education, and Bladder Training for Male Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
J. Quentin Clemens et al. Urology 2000 Dec; 56 (6): 951-955.

Integration of Myofascial Trigger Point Release and Paradoxical Relaxation Training Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Men.
Rodney U. Anderson, David Wise, Timothy Sawyer, and Christine Chan. The Journal of Urology 2005 July; 174 (1): 155-160.

Prostatitis: Infection, Neuromuscular Disorder, or Pain Syndrome? Proper Classification is Key.
Jeanette Potts MD and Richard E. Payne MD. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 2007 May; Vol. 74 Supplement 3: S63-S71.

Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Men and Women.
Moise et al. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 2007 May; 7 (5): 507-520.

Pelvic Floor Electromyography in Men With Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Case Control Study.
Diane C. Hetrick et al. Neurology and Urodynamics 2006; 25: 46-49.

Controversies in Chronic Abacterial Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Hans Hedelin and Magnus Fall. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 2008; 42: 198-204.

Management of Men Diagnosed With Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Who Have Failed Traditional Management.
J. Curtis Nickel, MD, FRCSC, Andrew Baranowski, MD, Michel Pontari, MD, Richard E. Berger, MD, and Dean A. Tripp, PhD. Reviews in Urology 2007 Spring; Vol. 9 No. 2: 63-72.

Commentary on Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: The Status Quo is Not Good Enough (But It Can Be).
Daniel A. Shoskes. UroToday International Journal 2010 June; 3 (3). Available at:

Physical Activity of Men With Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Not Satisfied With Conventional Treatments - Could it Represent a Valid Option? The Physical Activity and Male Pelvic Pain Trial: A Double-Blind, Randomized Study.
Gianluca Giubilei et al. The Journal of Urology 2007 Jan; Vol. 177: 159-165.

Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Non-Prostatocentric Perspective.
Jeanette M. Potts. World Journal of Urology 2003; 21: 54-56.

Alternative Approaches to the Management of Prostatitis: Biofeedback, Progressive Relaxation and the Concept of Functional Somatic Syndromes.
Jeanette M. Potts. European Urology Supplements 2 (2003): 34-37.

Understanding Chronic Pelvic Pain.
Marek Jantos. Pelviperineology 2007; 26: 66-69.

Management of Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.
Thunyarat Anothaisintawee MD et al. Journal of the American Medical Association 2011 Jan; Vol. 305 No. 1: 78-86.

Changing Paradigms for Chronic Pelvic Pain.
J. Curtis Nickel, MD, FRCSC, Richard Berger, MD, and Michel Pontari, MD. Reviews in Urology 2006 Winter; 8 (1): 28-35.

Health Concerns of Patients With Nonbacterial Prostatitis / Pelvic Pain.
Judith A. Turner PhD, Marcia A. Ciol PhD, Michael Von Korff ScD, and Richard Berger MD. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005 May; Vol. 165: 1054-1059.

Prostate Biopsy Culture Findings of Men With Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Do Not Differ From Those of Health Controls.
Jay C. Lee et al. The Journal of Urology 2003 Feb; Vol. 169: 584-588.

Primary Care Physician Practices in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Men With Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
EA Calhoun et al. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 2009; 12: 288-295.

Prostate-Related Pain in Patients With Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Henning Schneider, Kersten Wilbrandt, Martin Ludwig, Manfred Beutel, and Wolfgang Weidner. BJU International 2005; 95: 238-243.

Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Symptoms are Aggravated by Cold and Become Less Distressing With Age and Time.
Hans Hedelin and Karin Jonsson. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 2007; 41: 516-520.

Clinical Phenotyping in Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Interstitial Cystitis: A Management Strategy for Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes.
DA Shoskes, JC Nickel, RR Rackley, and MA Pontari. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 2009; 12: 177-183.

Chronic Prostatitis: Management Strategies.
Adam B. Murphy, Amanda Macejko, Aisha Taylor, and Robert B. Nadler. Drugs 2009; 69 (1): 71-84.

Toe Spreading Ability in Men With Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Ugur Yilmaz, Ivan Rothman, Marcia A. Ciol, Claire C. Yang, and Richard E. Berger. BMC Urology 2005 June; 5: 11.

Prevalence, Symptom Impact and Predictors of Chronic Prostatitis-like Symptoms in Canadian Males Aged 16-19 Years.
Dean A. Tripp, J. Curtis Nickel, Stephanie Ross, Chris Mullins, and Natialie Stechyson. BJU International 2008; 103: 1080-1084.

Prevalence and Correlates of Three Types of Pelvic Pain in a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Men.
Marian Pitts, BA(Hons), PhD et al. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2008; 5: 1223-1229.

Prevalence, Incidence Estimation, Risk Factors and Characterization of Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Urological Hospital Outpatients in Italy: Results of a Multicenter Case-Control Observational Study.
Riccardo Bartoletti et al. The Journal of Urology 2007 Dec; Vol. 178: 2411-2415.

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Erectile Dysfunction

Pelvic Floor Exercises for Erectile Dysfunction.
Grace Dorey, Mark J. Speakman, Roger C.L. Feneley, Annette Swinkels, and Christopher D.R. Dunn. BJU International 2005; 96: 595-597.

Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction by Perineal Exercise, Electromyographic Biofeedback, and Electrical Stimulation.
Marijke Van Kampen et al. Physical Therapy 2003 June; Vol. 83 No. 6: 536-543.

Perineal Floor Efficiency in Sexually Potent and Impotent Men.
GM Colpi, L. Negri, RE Nappi, and B Chinea. International Journal of Impotence Research 1999; 11: 153-157.

Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercises and Manometric Biofeedback for Erectile Dysfunction and Postmicturition Dribble: Three Case Studies.
Dorey G, Feneley RC, Speakman MJ, Robinson JP, and Paterson J. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing 2003 Jan; 30 (1): 44-51; Discussion 51-52.

Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: Can Pelvic Muscle Exercises Improve Sexual Function?
D. James Ballard, PT. Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing 1997 Sept; 24 (5): 255-264.

Potential Effectiveness of Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation Treatment for Postradical Prostatectomy Incontinence, Climacturia, and Erectile Dysfunction: A Case Series.
Maria Chiara Sighinolfi et al. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2009; 6: 3496-3499.

A Conservative Treatment Option of Curing Venous Leakage in Impotent Men.
Frank Sommer MD, PhD et al. European Urology Supplements 1 2002; No. 1: 153 (abstract).

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Premature Ejaculation / Painful Ejaculation
See also the CPPS section

A New Treatment for Premature Ejaculation: The Rehabilitation of the Pelvic Floor.
Giuseppe La Pera and Attilo Nicastro. Journal of Sexual and Marital Therapy 1996 Spring; Vol. 22 No. 1: 22-26.

Premature Ejaculation. 3. Therapy.
Piediferro G., Colpi EM, Castiglioni F, and Scroppo FI. Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia 2004 Dec; 76 (4): 192-198.

Chronic Prostatitis in Premature Ejaculation: A Cohort Study in 153 Men.
Rany Shamloul MD and Abdelrahman el Nashaar MD. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2006; 3: 150-154.

Disorders of Orgasm and Ejaculation in Men.
David Rowland PhD. et al. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2010; 7: 1668-1686.

Management of Post-Ejaculatory Perineal Pain.
Lauren N. Byrne and Randall B. Meacham. Journal of Andrology 2006 November-December; Vol. 27 No. 6: 710-711.

Role of Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Non-bacterial Prostatitis.
Ismet Yavascaoglu et al. International Journal of Urology 1999; 6: 130-134.

Prevalence of Premature Ejaculation in Turkish Men with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Murat Gonen, Mehmet Kalkan, Ali Cenker, and Hakan Ozkardes. Journal of Andrology 2005 September-October; Vol. 26 No. 5: 601-603.

Disorders of Ejaculation.
Harvard Men's Health Watch 2006 February. from:

Urogenital Infections and Male Sexuality: Effects on Ejaculation and Erection.
D. Schultheiss. Andrologia 2008; 40: 125-129.

Urologist Practice Patterns in the Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Nationwide Survey.
Alan Shindel MD, Christian Nelson PhD, and Steven Brandes MD. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2008; 5: 199-205.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Prostatitis: Prevalence of Painful Ejaculation in Men with Clinical BPH.
J. Curtis Nickel, Mostafa Elhilali, and Guy Vallancien. BJU International 2005; 95: 571-574.

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Genital Pain
See also the CPPS section

The Role of Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy in the Treatment of Pelvic and Genital Pain-Related Sexual Dysfunction.
Talli Y. Rosenbaum PT and Annette Owens MD, PhD. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2008; 5: 513-523.

A New Approach to the Treatment of Non-Specific Male Genital Pain.
Mark Naim and David Ende. BJU International 2011 April; Vol. 107 Issue Supplement s3: 34-37.

Chronic Testicular Pain as a Symptom of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.
Erik Planken et al. The Journal of Urology 2010 January; Vol. 183: 177-181.

Clinical Management of Chronic Testicular Pain.
Priyadarshi Kumar, Vivek Mehta, and Vinod H. Nargund. Urologia Internationalis 2010; 84 (2): 125-131.

Investigating and Managing Chronic Scrotal Pain.
S.R. Keoghane and M.E. Sullivan. BMJ 2010 Dec; Vol. 341: 1263-1266.

Chronic Scrotal Pain Syndrome (CSPS): The Widespread Use of Antibiotics is Not Justified.
Schmidt C, Beatrice J, Sulser T, and Strebel RT. European Urology Supplements 2008; 7 (3): 159 (abstract).

Pelvic Floor Involvement in Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction and the Role of Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation in Treatment: A Literature Review.
Talli Yehuda Rosenbaum, BS, PT. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2007; 4: 4-13

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Pain Associated with Receptive Sexual Intercourse

Anodyspareunia: A Novel Sexual Dysfunction? An Exploration into Anal Sexuality.
Karl Hollows. Sexual and Relationship Therapy 2007 Nov; Vol. 22 No. 4: 429-443.

Anodyspareunia in Men Who Have Sex with Men: Prevalence, Predictors, Consequences and the Development of DSM Diagnostic Criteria.
Will Damon and B.R. Simon Rosser. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 2005; 31: 129-141.

Male Dyspareunia.
Mathew Oommen MD and Wayne JG Hellstrom MD. 2010. from:

Anodyspareunia, the Unacknowledged Sexual Dysfunction: a Validation Study of Painful Receptive Anal Intercourse and its Psychosexual Concomitants in Homosexual Men.
Rosser BR, Short BJ, Thurmes PJ, and Coleman E. Journal of Sexual and Marital Therapy 1998 Oct-Dec; 24 (4): 281-292.

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Sexual Dysfunction Associated with CP / CPPS
See also the CPPS section

Specialized Physiotherapy for Sexual Discomfort and Dysorgasmia Associated with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS).
Jeanette Potts MD and Susan Decker PT. Journal of Men's Health 2010; Vol. 7 Issue 3: 320 (abstract)

Sexual Dysfunction and Prostatitis.
Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad MD and Allen Seftel MD. Current Urology Reports 2006; 7: 479-484.

Sexual Dysfunction in Men With Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Improvement After Trigger Point Release and Paradoxical Relaxation Training.
Anderson RU, Wise D, Sawyer T, and Chan CA. The Journal of Urology 2006 Oct; 176(4 Pt 1):1534-8; discussion 1538-9.

Sexual and Relationship Functioning in Men with Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Their Partners.
Smith, et al. Archives of Sexual Behavior 2007; 36: 301-311.

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Alternative and Complimentary Therapies

Alternative Therapies for the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis.
Lara K. Suh and Franklin C. Lowe. Current Urology Reports 2011 12:284-287.

Natural Approaches to Treating Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes.
Eric Yarnell, N.D., R.H. (A.H.G.) and Kathy Abascal, B.S., J.D., R.H. (A.H.G.). Alternative and Complimentary Therapies 2005 October: 246-251.

Complimentary and Alternative Medicine for Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Jillian L. Capodice, Debra L. Bemis, Ralph Buttyan, Steven A. Kaplan, and Aaron E. Katz. eCAM 2005; 2 (4) 495-501.

Use of Acupuncture as a Treatment Method for Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes.
Sang-Hun Lee and Byung-Cheol Lee. Current Urology Reports 2011; 12: 288-296.

Beyond Antibiotics and Alpha-Blockers for Prostatitis.
Johns Hopkins Health Alert 2010/2011. Available at:

Effectiveness of Acupuncture in Patients with Category IIIB Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Report of 97 Patients.
Volkan Tugcu, MD, Selim Tas, MD, Gulay Eren, MD, Bahar Bedirhan, MD, Serdar Karadag, MD, and Ali Tasci, Prof. Pain Medicine 2010; 11: 518-523.

Acupuncture Ameliorates Symptoms in Men with Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome.
Chen R and Nickel JC. Urology 2003 June; 61 (6): 1156-1159, Discussion 1159.

Hatha Yoga Therapy Management of Urological Disorders.
Dr. Emmey A. Ripoll, MD and Dawn R. Mahowald, CYI. World Journal of Urology 2002; vol. 20 No. 5: 306-309.

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Athletics / Bicycling

Pelvic Pain and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Male Athletes.
Victor Liberi, MS, ATC, CSCS, STS and Karen Liberi, MS, MPT, WCS. International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training 2011 January; 8-12.

The Anatomy of the Pubic Region Revisited: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Clinical Management of Chronic Groin Pain in Athletes.
Brett A. Robertson, Priscilla J. Barker, Marius Fahrer, and Anthony G. Schache. Sports Medicine 2009; 39 (3): 225-234.

Bicycle Riding and Erectile Dysfunction: A Review.
Frank Sommer, Irwin Goldstein, and Joanna Beate Korda. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2010 July; Vol. 7, Issue 7: 2346-2358.

No-nose Saddles for Preventing Genital Numbness and Sexual Dusfunction from Occupational Bicycling.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2009 U.S. Government publication available at:

The Vicious Cycling: Bicycling Related Urogenital Disorders.
Ilan Leibovitch and Yoram Mor. European Urology 47 (2005): 277-287.

Development of a New Geometric Bicycle Saddle for the Maintenance of Genital-Perineal Vascular Perfusion.
G. Breda, MD, N. Piazza, MD, V. Bernardi, MD, E. Lunardon, MD, and Adara Caruso, MD. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2005; 2: 605-611.

Effect of Bicycle Saddle Designs on the Pressure to the Perineum of the Bicyclist.
Brian D. Lowe, Steven M. Schrader, and Michael J. Breitenstein. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2004 June; 36 (6): 1055-1062.

Cycling and Your Health.
Ben E. Benjamin. Massage Therapy Journal 2004 Summer.

Impotence and Genital Numbness in Cyclists.
F. Sommer, D. Konig, C. Graf, U. Schwarzer, C. Bertram, T. Klotz, and U. Engelmann. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2001 Aug; 22 (6): 410-413.

Does Bicycling Contribute to the Risk of Erectile Dysfunction? Results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS).
L. Marceau, K. Kleinman, I. Goldstein, and J. McKinlay. International Journal of Impotence Research 2001 Oct; 13 (5): 298-302.

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Continence / Voiding

Pelvic Floor Myofascial Trigger Points: Manual Therapy for Interstitial Cystitis and the Urgency-Frequency Syndrome.
Jerome M. Weiss. Journal of Urology 2001; Vol. 166: 2226-2231.

Biofeedback vs Verbal Feedback as Learning Tools for Pelvic Muscle Exercises in the Early Management of Urinary Incontinence after Radical Prostatectomy.
D.L. Floratos et al. BJU International 2002; 89: 714-719.

Chronic Prostatitis Presenting with Dysfunctional Voiding and Effects of Pelvic Floor Biofeedback Treatment.
Wei He, Minfeng Chen, Xiongbing Zu, Yuan Li, Keping Ning, nad Lin Qi. BJU International 2009; 105: 975-977.

Developing a Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Regimen for Use in a Trial Intervention.
Grace Dorey, PhD., FCSP et al. Physiotherapy 2009; 95 (3): 199-209.

Post-micturition Dribble: Aetiology and Treatment.
Grace Dorey, PhD., FCSP. Nursing Times 2008.

Pelvic Floor Exercises as a Treatment for Post-micturition Dribble.
Paterson J., Pinnock C.B., and Marshell V.R. British Journal of Urology 1997 June; 79 (6): 892-897.

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Prostatic Massage

Role of Repeated Prostatic Massage in Chronic Prostatitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Vibhash C. Mishra, John Browne, and Mark Emberton. Journal of Urology 2008 Oct; 72 (4): 731-735.

The Effect of Therapeutic Prostatic Massage on Prostatic Blood Flow in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome IIIA and IIIB.
Kogan I., Belousov I., Shangichev V., Afoko A., Paleonji V., Bolotskov V. European Urology Supplements 2008; 7 (3): 158 (Abstract).

Prostatitis Unplugged? Prostatic Massage Revisited.
J. Curtis Nickel, M.D., Richard Alexander, M.D., Rodney Anderson, M.D., John Krieger, M.D., Timothy Moon, M.D., Durwood Neal, M.D., Anthony Schaeffer, M.D., and Daniel Shoskes, M.D. Techniques in Urology 1999; Vol. 5, No. 1: 1-7.

Use of Prostatic Massage in Combination with Antibiotics in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis.
DA Shoskes and SI Zeitlin. Prostatic Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 1999; 2 (3): 159-163.

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